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There are three manner to perform Hajj. Whatever we choose, the Hajj is valid. So, how to perform Hajj?
First day: 8th Dhu Al Hijja
Pronounce your intention to perform the pilgrimage by a ritual formula repeated three times (niya (نيّة) intention or will). This should be sincere, as it will engage you, as pilgrim, throughout the rites of Hajj.
Enters into the sate of Ihram: take- if possible - a ritual shower, put on unsewn clothes of Ihram for men and simple clothes for women (no limitations set; they only must respect a certain discretion), and finally say "Labayika Hajjan" (or "Labayika Umrah" or " Labayika Umratan wa Hajjan ") according to the rite of Hajj which you chose first. (1)
Perform Tawaf Al Qudum (Arival) : right on arrival to the Sacred Mosque, make seven tours around the holy Ka'abah considering the black stone as point of departure. Then, make a prayer of two Raka'ahs behind Abraham's station (Maqam Ibrahim). (2)
Walk the course (420 m in a long corridor adjacent to the mosque) between the Mountain Al Safa and the Mountain Al Marwa in memory of the wandering of Agar in search of water for Ismael.
Repeat this course seven times, starting always at Al Safa and ending at Al Marwa. Then drink from the source Zemzem. (Saayi سعي rushing; effort; search) (3)
It is the day of "Tarwiyah" or the day of providence of water for the road.
Go to "Mina", 4 km away from Mecca, and perform the prayers of noon (Al Dhohr), of the afternoon (Al Asr), of the evening (Al Maghreb and (Al Isha) and of the morning (Al Fajr) while shortening the prayers of four Raka'ahs to two only. (4)
Second day: 9th of Dhu Al Hijja
When the sun rises, it is required to proceed to the mountain ‘Arafat (20 km) and to be there for the prayer of noon (Al Dhohr) and of the afternoon (Al Asr) (by shortening them to only two Rakaat each) making sure to be inside the borders of ‘Arafat.
Then, it is required to stay in this territory up to sunset. It is at this point that the prophet Mohamed ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him ) made his farewell sermon (Wuquf وُقوف halt; station) (5). This day is dedicated to prayers, implorations and invocations of Allah. According to the prophet Mohamed ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him):
“The best prayer in this day of ‘Arafat and the best words pronounced by me and by the prophets who preceded me are: “no divinity if it is not Allah, the Unique without partner, He detains the Kingship, to Him returns all praise and He is the Almighty above anything else ".
Wuquf Arafat is an essential rite without which Hajj would be invalid.
In this day, you may pray with supplications of your choice while facing Qibla, asking Allah for the earthly and heavenly favours, and seeking His graces for your life and your religion, for you, your close relations, and all Muslims, men and women.
After sunset, it is necessary to proceed to "Muzdalifah". Upon arrival, it is required to perform the evening prayers (Al Maghreb and Al Isha). Then, it is required to stay at Muzdalifah until night fall and to pray Al Fajr there (to pass the night at Al Muzdalifah is one of the pillars of Hajj). Supply yourself with pebbles to be used for the stoning at Mina. (49 pebbles: 7+21+21). (6)
Third day: 10th of Dhul-Hijjah
After Fajr prayer, stop at the so-called location "mash'ar el haram", sacred oratory of Mouzdalifah, where you will address Allah in invocations and praises. Then, before sunrise, proceed Mina.
It is the day of the sacrifice feast: “Aid Al Idh'ha ".
Upon arrival at Mina, stone the biggest stele called "Jamarat Al ‘Aqaba" with 7 pebbles, throwing one after the other, and saying: "Allahou Akbar".
After this first stoning, the pilgrim who owes an offering worries about the sacrifice of his animal. The sacrifice can be made anytime in the next three days, called the days of Tashriq. Then shave your head or just shorten your hair. Once done, you would be in the state called the little non-sacredness; all the ritual prohibitions appropriate to the state of sacredness are terminated, except for the sexual relations between married couples.
Then, return to Mecca and perform Tawaf Al Ifadaha (one of the pillars of Hajj). It does not differ from saayi. After that, go back to Mina where you will spend the night.
You, so doing, would have completed total non-sacredness, Ihram is thus terminated and all the ritual prohibitions are allowed again, including the sexual relations between married couples.
Fourth and fifth day: 11th and 12th of Dhu-Hijjah
After the morning prayer, walk the 300 meters which separate you from the location where Abraham took his son Ismael to be sacrificed.
On that course, you will meet three pillars standing for the three points where the devil (Iblis) tried to divert Abraham. Stone these pillars with the collected pebbles the day before:
At first, stone the first stele which is after the mosque "Al Khaif", then stone the second, and the third. Every time, throw seven successive pebbles ( 7 ). So doing, you repeat the gestures made by Ibrahim (Abraham), loved by Allah, as he stoned the devil who tried to dissuade him from obeying the divine orders.
In the meantime, it is required to slaughter the animal that symbolizes the ram which Abraham sacrificed instead of his son. It is necessary to eat from it. Yet, the biggest part must be given to the needy. The pilgrim has the possibility to pay the amount of the offering to a bank managed by the local authorities ( 8 ).
When you finish your preparations for departure, you should bid farewell to the holy Ka'abah by performing Tawaf al Wadaa (Tawaf of farewell). (7 tours of Ka'abah) + 2 Raka'ahs behind maqam Ibrahim. (9).
Remember that the Tawaf of farewell is the final act in Mecca. So say the words of the prophet Mohamed ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): " Let the tawaf be the eventual thing you do before leaving Mecca. " (reported by Imam Muslim)
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